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Millions of Californians are ‘gray area drinkers,’ study finds


It’s St. Patrick’s Day, and many are considering a pint of beer to celebrate. Additionally, many people tend to find any excuse to drink on any day during the week — boozy brunches… happy hour… Wine o’clock… After-work drinks… It’s 5 o’clock somewhere… or nighttime nightcaps, for example. But when excessive drinking becomes normalized among social circles, colleagues, parents and family, it’s not always easy to distinguish the problematic aspect of the habit.

Although not an official medical diagnosis, ‘gray area drinking’ can be described as a space between two extreme behaviors: drinking within the realm between acceptable moderate drinking and a diagnosed alcohol use disorder.

Those who drink within this “gray” area may use alcohol in emotional or excessive ways, which can lead to problems in terms of mental health, relationships and work. However, for the person drinking, it can be difficult to acknowledge and accept that these drinking patterns have had a negative impact on their daily lives. For example, if everyone around them is drinking the same amount or more, it may normalize or diminish the consequences of these actions.

Others may feel that if they’re not having a drink first thing in the morning, their habits can’t be classified as problematic – after all, someone who drinks each morning is a stereotypical view of an alcoholic.

Many people in the realm of gray area drinking are unaware of the emotional or physical implications of their habits, but may question their relationship with the intoxicant. During the pandemic, some turned to alcohol as a coping mechanism for the stress and anxiety of everyday life, increasing their drinking habits slowly but surely, but not recognizing the impact of these incremental increases.

While people are often aware of the risks associated with alcohol dependence and/or addiction, they are often unaware of the risks involved in any type of increase in their consumption. Research shows that any sort of alcohol intake whatsoever can have harmful health effects, including an increased risk of alcohol poisoning, liver disease, heart disease and various types of cancer, as well as decreased brain function. conducted a survey of 3,704 people aged 21 and over about their drinking habits to determine how many would be classified as ‘gray area drinkers.’ The survey uncovered that a significant percentage – 24 percent – of Californians would be considered ‘gray area drinkers.’ This is approximately 21,392,000 people in California who sometimes drink alcohol excessively or emotionally, despite not having a severe alcohol use disorder.

The study also analyzed these results broken down by age and discovered that, overall, those aged 25 – 34 had the highest percentage of gray area drinkers with nearly one-third (32 percent) meeting the criteria. The second-highest percentage belonged to those aged 35 – 44, in which one-quarter (25 percent) would be classified as a gray area drinker according to their drinking habits.

Drinking habits among young adults and college students are particularly notable in settings such as frat parties and other social gatherings where excessive consumption is normalized and oftentimes encouraged. Nearly one-quarter (24 percent) of those aged 18 – 24 would be classified as gray area drinkers. These figures decreased as the age groups increased in years:

• Age 45 – 54: 21 percent are gray area drinkers

• Age 55 – 64: 19 percent are gray area drinkers

• Age 65+: 11 percent are gray area drinkers

From these results, it’s possible to see that gray area drinking is a habit that is more common than one may think. It also appears that a significant number of drinkers question their relationship with drinking when it comes to experiencing shame or embarrassment about their consumption habits. When asked if they experience any of these guilt-associated feelings, 16 percent of drinkers said they do feel this way about their drinking habits.

Even though so many drinkers admit to feeling this way, when it comes to gray area habits that are normalized, it might be difficult for individuals to take action to cut down on their intake. For example, if everyone in a certain social circle engages in similar consumption habits, and doesn’t address the negative implications, it reduces space for discussion about these feelings associated with shame or embarrassment. This could lead to some people struggling in silence with their relationship to drinking. Of course, speaking openly about such issues can benefit many people looking to seek help, but they aren’t sure where to begin.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says that a majority (90 percent) of those who drink excessively don’t actually meet the clinical criteria for severe alcohol use disorder. For women, these guidelines state anything over eight drinks per week as excessive drinking, and for men, anything over 15 drinks per week. However, even with these guidelines in place, it can be tricky to determine at what point an individual’s consumption has become problematic. Therefore, it’s not necessarily the number of drinks that classifies someone’s habits as problematic, but whether or not their alcohol intake causes issues in their day-to-day life.

When asked if they consider gray area drinking a problematic habit, however, more than one-third (36 percent) of people actually said they don’t view it as an issue.